Thursday, July 5, 2018

How to install wordpress on ubuntu 18.04

There are 3 main components to be installed, before wordpress can be deployed, which are apache2, php and mariadb-server.

Install apache2

$ sudo apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-php 

Install php and its components
$ sudo apt install php php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc php-mysql

Install mariadb-server
$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

Create new database
$ mysql -u root
MariaDB [none]> create database mywordpressdb;
MariaDB [none]> grant all on mywordpressdb.* to mywordpressuser@localhost identified by 'password';
MariaDB [none]> flush privileges;

Test the new database using the new user created, you should be able to access the database using the credential created above
$ mysql -u mywordpressuser -p mywordpressdb 
MariaDB [wordpress_db]>

Download wordpress
$ wget -c

Extract to /var/www/html
$ tar -xvf latest.tar.gz
$ sudo mv wordpress /var/www/html/mywordpress
$ sudo chown -R www-data /var/www/html/mywordpress

Access your wordpress site using browser, at http://localhost/mywordpress, and follow the onscreen instruction

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

How to install joomla 3.8.10 on ubuntu 18.04

3 main components to make joomla work are nginx, mariadb and php.

Install nginx
$ sudo apt install nginx

Install mariadb
$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

Install php and required components
$ sudo apt install php php-zlib php-xml php-json php-mcrypt 

Download joomla
$ wget -c

Extract joomla
$ mkdir joomla
$ tar -xvf Joomla_3-8-10-Stable-Full_Package.tar.bz2 -C joomla

Deploy to DocumentRoot
$ sudo mv joomla /var/www/html/
$ sudo chown www-data -R /var/www/html/joomla

Create database
$ sudo mysql
MariaDB [(none)]> create database joomla;
MariaDB [(none)]> grant all on joomla.* to joomla@localhost identified by 'password';
MariaDB [(none)]> flush privileges;

Edit nginx config as per below:
server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    root /var/www/html/joomla;
    index  index.php index.html index.htm;

    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;

    location ~ \.php$ {
         include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
         fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;
         fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
         include fastcgi_params;


Test for syntax error
$ sudo nginx -t

Restart nginx
$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

Browse and follow the joomla installation wizard until finish.

Thursday, May 31, 2018

Creating openstack new security group, and allowing inbound port

To see existing security group
$ openstack security group list

To create a new security group named ssh-allow
$ openstack security group create  ssh-allow

To allow port 22 inbound (ingress)
$ openstack security group rule create --ingress --proto tcp --dst-port 22 ssh-allow

To see if our port allowance is successfully implemented (use --fit-width to format the output properly)
$ openstack security group show ssh-allow --fit-width

Monday, May 28, 2018

Setting up mongodb replication

Mongodb needs at least 2 servers, preferably 3, to setup a proper mongodb replication. In this article, we will use below hostname as our mongodb nodes: mongo-1 (primary) mongo-2 mongo-3

Make sure mongodb is installed in all servers.

Set mongodb repo:

mongo-1: $ cat <>> mongodb.repo
>name=MongoDB Repository
mongo-1: $ sudo mv mongodb.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/

Install mongodb:
mongo-1: $ sudo yum install -y mongodb-org

Set /etc/hosts for each server as below:
mongo-1: $ cat <> hosts
> mongo-1
> mongo-2
> mongo-3
mongo-1: $ sudo mv hosts /etc/

To ease up this installation, turn off firewall and set selinux to permissive mode, temporarily, in all servers.
mongo-1: $ sudo systemctl stop firewalld
mongo-1: $ sudo setenforce 0

Edit /etc/mongod.conf in every server, to be similar as below (assuming we are using myreplica as our replSet)

mongo-1: $ sudo cat /etc/mongod.conf

Once editing is done, restart mongodb in each server
mongo-1: $ sudo systemctl restart mongod

On the first server initiate mongo replica:
mongo-1: $ sudo mongo
MongoDB shell version: x.x.x
connecting to: test
Server has startup warnings: 
2018-05-28T04:39:22.580+0000 [initandlisten] 
2018-05-28T04:39:22.580+0000 [initandlisten] ** WARNING: Readahead for /var/lib/mongo is set to 4096KB
2018-05-28T04:39:22.580+0000 [initandlisten] **          We suggest setting it to 256KB (512 sectors) or less
2018-05-28T04:39:22.580+0000 [initandlisten] **
myreplica:PRIMARY> rs.initiate() 

Add the other server, namely mongo-2 and mongo-3 to the replicaset
myreplica:PRIMARY> rs.add("mongo-2")
myreplica:PRIMARY> rs.add("mongo-3")

Run rs.status() to see the status of our replica
myreplica:PRIMARY> rs.status()
        "set" : "myreplica",
        "date" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:32:10Z"),
        "myState" : 1,
        "members" : [
                        "_id" : 0,
                        "name" : "mongodb-1.novalocal:27017",
                        "health" : 1,
                        "state" : 1,
                        "stateStr" : "PRIMARY",
                        "uptime" : 77,
                        "optime" : Timestamp(1527485519, 1),
                        "optimeDate" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:31:59Z"),
                        "electionTime" : Timestamp(1527485474, 1),
                        "electionDate" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:31:14Z"),
                        "self" : true
                        "_id" : 1,
                        "name" : "mongo-2:27017",
                        "health" : 1,
                        "state" : 6,
                        "stateStr" : "UNKNOWN",
                        "uptime" : 19,
                        "optime" : Timestamp(0, 0),
                        "optimeDate" : ISODate("1970-01-01T00:00:00Z"),
                        "lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:32:10Z"),
                        "lastHeartbeatRecv" : ISODate("1970-01-01T00:00:00Z"),
                        "pingMs" : 0,
                        "lastHeartbeatMessage" : "still initializing"
                        "_id" : 2,
                        "name" : "mongo-3:27017",
                        "health" : 1,
                        "state" : 6,
                        "stateStr" : "UNKNOWN",
                        "uptime" : 11,
                        "optime" : Timestamp(0, 0),
                        "optimeDate" : ISODate("1970-01-01T00:00:00Z"),
                        "lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:32:09Z"),
                        "lastHeartbeatRecv" : ISODate("1970-01-01T00:00:00Z"),
                        "pingMs" : 0,
                        "lastHeartbeatMessage" : "still initializing"
        "ok" : 1

In order to rectify the "stateStr: UNKNOWN" and "lastHeartbeatMessage: still initializing", simply add the name of the primary server, as given by mongodb in /etc/hosts of all secondary servers

mongo-2: $ cat /etc/hosts mongo-1 mongodb-1.novalocal mongo-2 mongo-3 

mongo-3: $ cat /etc/hosts mongo-1 mongodb-1.novalocal mongo-2 mongo-3 

You should be getting "syncingTo : mongodb-1.novalocal:27017", and "stateStr: SECONDARY" when you run rs.status() in primary server

myreplica:PRIMARY> rs.status()
                        "_id" : 2,
                        "name" : "mongo-3:27017",
                        "health" : 1,
                        "state" : 2,
                        "stateStr" : "SECONDARY",
                        "uptime" : 368,
                        "optime" : Timestamp(1527485519, 1),
                        "optimeDate" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:31:59Z"),
                        "lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:38:06Z"),
                        "lastHeartbeatRecv" : ISODate("2018-05-28T05:38:06Z"),
                        "pingMs" : 1,
                        "syncingTo" : "mongodb-1.novalocal:27017"

Your replica is now complete. To test it out:

Create new database in primary server, and fill up with data
myreplica:PRIMARY> use mynewdb
... {
...     "name": "myreplica",
...     "description":  "this is my new mongodb replica",
...     "hosts" : [ "mongo-1", "mongo-2", "mongo-3" ],
... })
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
myreplica:PRIMARY> show dbs
admin      (empty)
local      2.077GB
mynewdb    0.078GB
myreplica:PRIMARY> show collections;
myreplica:PRIMARY> db.stack.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b0b97f9aca2dd0afb9d86a5"), "name" : "myreplica", "description" : "this is my new mongodb replica", "hosts" : [ "mongo-1", "mongo-2", "mongo-3" ] }

Login to secondary servers, sync (by running "rs.slaveOk()" ) and check whether the data gets replicated

myreplica:SECONDARY> use mynewdb
switched to db mynewdb
myreplica:SECONDARY> show collections
2018-05-28T05:51:42.601+0000 error: { "$err" : "not master and slaveOk=false", "code" : 13435 } at src/mongo/shell/query.js:131
myreplica:SECONDARY> rs.slaveOk()
myreplica:SECONDARY> show collections
myreplica:SECONDARY> db.stack.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("5b0b97f9aca2dd0afb9d86a5"), "name" : "myreplica", "description" : "this is my new mongodb replica", "hosts" : [ "mongo-1", "mongo-2", "mongo-3" ] }

Done :)

Friday, May 25, 2018

Creating image from a running instance

Sometimes we want to spawn off a few new instances, with the same spec and operating systems, but we do not want to go through the hassle of setting up each OS manually, and then update it one by one. In order to do that efficiently, openstack provides a very good way, which is to create an image from a running instance, and this image can be used to spawn off new instances afterwards.

Before we turn any instance to an image, we need to know its instance ID

$ openstack server list

We can then create an image from the above instance ID
$ openstack server image create --name centos7-updated-20180525 21e78f23-8b67-423a-9622-d46c8487f829

To make sure our image is created correctly, check using:
$ openstack image list

To create a new instance from the image, please refer here

Creating a new instance on openstack

In order to create new instance (it is called server in openstack command), you need to know beforehand a few information to feed to the create instance command. Refer below for those information:

check available flavor

$ openstack flavor list

check available images
$ openstack image list

check available network
$ openstack network list

check available security group
$ openstack security group list

check available keypair
$ openstack keypair list

Once you get all the above information, to create the new instance, just use below command, providing the above information as option to openstack server create command
$ openstack server create \
--image centos-7-20180520 \
--key-name my-keypair \
--flavor m1.medium \
--security-group defaults \
--network private-140 \

To check whether your new instance has been created and active:
$ openstack server list

Monday, April 16, 2018

Simple http server using nodejs http-server

This method is particularly useful if you want to make some files on your server, downloadable on the internet, via any port you choose, directly using your ip (or public ip)

Install epel repository
# yum install epel-release

Install npm
# yum install npm

Check whether npm (nodejs package manager) is installed
# npm -v

Install http-server globally
# npm -i http-server -g

Start http-server on port 80, serving content in /tmp/test
# http-server -p 80 /tmp/test

You should now able to browse to the ip address of the machine (in this example, 139.x.x.x) using a browser, and should be able to download the content of /tmp/test

Thursday, March 22, 2018

Sending email using netcat (nc) command

Sometimes you just have to send an email from a server you are currently working on, or you just need to test whether your email server is working, either way, you can always count on netcat to to the job for you. Below command will connect to the mail server you want, on port 25, and send email from there. Please take note, that this command is used in CentOS 7 server, using nmap-ncat-6.40-7.el7 package.

Connect to the on port 25

$ nc 25
220 ESMTP Postfix
Once connected, say hello to the email server
$ nc 25 220 ESMTP Postfix
Specify a return address, just in case the email bounced. This is an SMTP protocol requirement.
$ nc 25 220 ESMTP Postfix
250 2.1.0 Ok
Specify recipient of the email.
$ nc 25 220 ESMTP Postfix

250 2.1.0 Ok 
250 2.1.5 Ok
Put in you message (any message will do, but below is just how normal email usually formatted). Once you are done typing in your message, put dot (.) as a signal you are done with the DATA, and server will reply with your queue number.
$ nc 25 220 ESMTP Postfix
250 2.1.0 Ok 
250 2.1.5 Ok 
354 End data with .
Subject: A gift
Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 12:00:00 +0000
This is merely a gift for you. Enjoy.
250 2.0.0 Ok: queued as 7F571241267C
To exit, just type quit, and you are done.
$ nc 25 220 ESMTP Postfix
250 2.1.0 Ok 
250 2.1.5 Ok 
354 End data with .
Subject: A gift
Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 12:00:00 +0000
This is merely a gift for you. Enjoy.
250 2.0.0 Ok: queued as 7F571241267C 
221 2.0.0 Bye
That's all,  the recipient should already received the email, or you should get a return email if it is bounced.

Wednesday, March 21, 2018

Creating large gpt partition using gdisk

Check the current partition

# parted /dev/sda print
Model: Cisco (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 78124994560s
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:
Number  Start    End                Size                Type       File system  Name                             Flags
 1            2048s  4095s             2048s             primary                       Linux Filesystem
 2            4096s  4294967295s 4294963200s primary   xfs               Linux Filesystem           boot

Run gdisk on the disk
# gdisk /dev/sda
GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.6
Partition table scan:
  MBR: MBR only
  BSD: not present
  APM: not present
  GPT: not present
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format.
you don't want to convert your MBR partitions to GPT format!
Command (? for help):

Press 'p' to print current partition, and to see how much free space is available
Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 78124994560 sectors, 36.4 TiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): F0A6B5A3-3C91-47CE-BD70-FAD8A88DD132
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 78124994526
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 73830029245 sectors (34.4 TiB)
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size              Code  Name
   1            2048               4095              1024.0 KiB  8300  Linux filesystem
   2            4096               4294967295  2.0 TiB         8300  Linux filesystem

Press 'n' to create new partition, and choose the default partition type, which is Linux filesystem
Command (? for help): n
Partition number (3-128, default 3):
First sector (34-78124994526, default = 4294967296) or {+-}size{KMGTP}:
Last sector (4294967296-78124994526, default = 78124994526) or {+-}size{KMGTP}:
Current type is 'Linux filesystem'
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300):
Changed type of partition to 'Linux filesystem'

Press 't', and type 'ef02' to change the first partition type, to bios boot partition. This to make sure that that this partition will be used for grub reinstallation later
Command (? for help): t
Partition number (1-3): 1
Current type is 'Linux filesystem'
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): L
0700 Microsoft basic data  0c01 Microsoft reserved    2700 Windows RE
4200 Windows LDM data      4201 Windows LDM metadata  7501 IBM GPFS
7f00 ChromeOS kernel       7f01 ChromeOS root         7f02 ChromeOS reserved
8200 Linux swap            8300 Linux filesystem      8301 Linux reserved
8e00 Linux LVM             a500 FreeBSD disklabel     a501 FreeBSD boot
a502 FreeBSD swap          a503 FreeBSD UFS           a504 FreeBSD ZFS
a505 FreeBSD Vinum/RAID    a580 Midnight BSD data     a581 Midnight BSD boot
a582 Midnight BSD swap     a583 Midnight BSD UFS      a584 Midnight BSD ZFS          a585 Midnight BSD Vinum    a800 Apple UFS             a901 NetBSD swap
a902 NetBSD FFS            a903 NetBSD LFS            a904 NetBSD concatenated
a905 NetBSD encrypted      a906 NetBSD RAID           ab00 Apple boot
af00 Apple HFS/HFS+        af01 Apple RAID            af02 Apple RAID offline
af03 Apple label           af04 AppleTV recovery      af05 Apple Core Storage
be00 Solaris boot          bf00 Solaris root          bf01 Solaris /usr & Mac Z
bf02 Solaris swap          bf03 Solaris backup        bf04 Solaris /var
bf05 Solaris /home         bf06 Solaris alternate se  bf07 Solaris Reserved 1
bf08 Solaris Reserved 2    bf09 Solaris Reserved 3    bf0a Solaris Reserved 4
bf0b Solaris Reserved 5    c001 HP-UX data            c002 HP-UX service
ed00 Sony system partitio  ef00 EFI System            ef01 MBR partition scheme
ef02 BIOS boot partition   fb00 VMWare VMFS           fb01 VMWare reserved
fc00 VMWare kcore crash p  fd00 Linux RAID
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): ef02
Changed type of partition to 'BIOS boot partition'

Press 'p' to check the changes that you have made
Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 78124994560 sectors, 36.4 TiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): F0A6B5A3-3C91-47CE-BD70-FAD8A88DD132
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 78124994526
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 2014 sectors (1007.0 KiB)
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048            4095   1024.0 KiB  EF02  BIOS boot partition
   2            4096      4294967295   2.0 TiB     8300  Linux filesystem
   3      4294967296     78124994526   34.4 TiB    8300  Linux filesystem

Press 'w' to write the changes to disk, and answer 'Y' for confirmation
Command (? for help): w
Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y
OK; writing new GUID partition table (GPT) to /dev/sda.
Warning: The kernel is still using the old partition table.
The new table will be used at the next reboot.
The operation has completed successfully.

Reinstall grub, so that it will be located in the first partition of the hardisk
# grub2-install /dev/sdaInstalling for i386-pc platform.
Installation finished. No error reported.

Reboot the machine, for the new partition table to be activated
# reboot

Once booted, check whether the new partition has been successfully created, with GPT partition table 
# parted /dev/sda printModel: Cisco (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 40.0TB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:
Number  Start       End        Size         File system  Name                        Flags
 1            1049kB  2097kB  1049kB                       BIOS boot partition  bios_grub
 2            2097kB  2199GB 2199GB  xfs               Linux filesystem
 3            2199GB 40.0TB   37.8TB                       Linux filesystem

Thursday, February 8, 2018

Extracting and creating war files in centos

To manipulate war files, you need a command called jar, and this command is available from openjdk-devel package.

Install openjdk-devel -y
# yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel

You should be able to use jar command
# which jar

View the content of a war file
# jar tf sample.jar

Extract the content of a war file
# jar xf sample.jar

Create war from files
# jar cf sample.jar /path/to/files

Tuesday, January 9, 2018

Rsync to a different ssh port

In order to use rsync with different ssh post, you can use -e flag, and supply ssh command with port option. For example, I want to transfer a file called /root/book.txt from a server called project.local with sshd running on port 55522 to local partition /mnt, I can use this command:

$ rsync -avz --progress -e "ssh -p 55522" root@project.local:/root/book.txt /mnt

-a for archive mode
-v for verbose
-z to compress data during transfer
--progress for showing progress of the copy
-e to specify the remote shell to use, in this case to use ssh to port 55522

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Resizing partition in centos after vmware hardisk extension

This is usually done, when the hardisk space for the CentOS VM is running low.

Check your current disk size
# fdisk -lu /dev/sda

To increase the size of the hardisk image, shutdown the centos VM
# poweroff

Increase the hardisk image in VMware

Power on the centos VM

Once logged in, check back whether you have increased your disk size
# fdisk -lu /dev/sda

Create new partition on the new disk space
# fdisk /dev/sda
n   {new partition}
p   {primary partition}
3   {partition number}
t    {change partition id}
8e {Linux LVM partition}
w  {write partition change to disk}

Reboot the vm
# reboot

Check the new partition
# fdisk -lu /dev/sda

Create physical volume (PV) on the new partition
# pvcreate /dev/sda3

Check list of PV
# pvs

Extend the current Volume Group (VG) to include the new PV, and check the new VG size
# vgextend centos /dev/sda3
# vgs

Extend the current Logical Volume (LV), and check the new size of logical volume 
# lvextend /dev/mapper/centos-root /dev/sda3
# lvs

Resize / partition
# resize2fs /dev/mapper/centos-root

Check the new size
# df -h /
before resize:

after resize: