Thursday, February 19, 2015

Starting with tmux - putting in initial settings

After a few years using GNU screen as my main terminal multiplexer, I have now changed it to tmux. The reasons behind that are:

  1. A lot more customizable
  2. The commands are also available in easy human understandable language, rather than just the shortcuts. For example: to kill a window, just "ctrl-b" and type "kill-window" or "killw", which is easier for new user like me to remember and use, rather than shortcuts like "ctrl-b &" which sometimes can be confusing.
  3. Easier horizontal and vertical splitting mechanism

To start with tmux, especially if you are coming from screen, it is very important to set th ekey binding right, since ctrl-b is not easily reachable with one hand compared to ctrl-1. Below are my initial .tmux.conf settings, to ease up my transition from GNU screen to tmux.

$ cat .tmux.conf
# unbind control-b, and replace it with control-a (GNU screen style)
set-option -g prefix C-a
           unbind-key C-b
           bind-key C-a send-prefix
# Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy and choice modes
set-window-option -g mode-keys vi       
# start windows numbering at 1
set -g base-index 1
# renumber windows when a window is closed                     
set -g renumber-windows on              

So there you go, some very simple settings to be appended to .tmux.conf, to ease up your learning in using tmux. Please refer to the comments, to actually know what the settings are for. You can always refer to tmux manual (man tmux) for more settings.

Hope this will be helpful :)

Thursday, February 12, 2015

Accessing other user's screen session

This need usually arises, when in a multi user machine, you as an admin wanted to check what is other user is running using screen. The best you can see even as root using ps, is just the name of the command, like below:

michael@vbox:~$ sudo ps awxuf | grep -i screen

root      1135  0.0  0.0  13636   976 pts/1    S+   13:27   0:00                          \_ grep --color=auto -i screen

john   4245  0.0  0.0 387364 16668 ?        Sl   Feb02   0:06  |       \_ gnome-screensaver

1001      6762  0.0  0.0 347384 10428 ?        Sl   Feb02   0:00              \_ gnome-screensaver

john    625  0.0  0.0  31320  1568 ?        Ss   11:57   0:00 SCREEN -S test

michael@vbox:~$ pstree -Gap 625

screen,625 -S test


When you try to access the screen session using other user, this is usually the error:

michael@vbox:~$ sudo -u john screen -r 625
Cannot open your terminal '/dev/pts/1' - please check.

This is because, your terminal: /dev/pts/1 is only readable and writable to the owner of the terminal:

michael@vbox:~$ ls -lh /dev/pts/1
crw--w---- 1 john tty 136, 1 Feb  12 13:30 /dev/pts/1

To overcome this, simply allow read and write to the terminal, to all users:
john@vbox:~$ chmod o+rw /dev/pts/1
john@vbox:~$ ls -lh /dev/pts/1
crw--w-rw- 1 john tty 136, 1 Feb  12 13:32 /dev/pts/1

Once that done, you can use sudo to access the screen of the other user:
michael@vbox:~$ sudo -u john screen -r 625

Hope this help :).

Thursday, January 22, 2015

How to manage files whose name starting with hyphen (-), or double hyphen (--)

There are a few ways you can manage these kind of files, the normal way won't work, since this filename will be treated as options for almost all commands. Please see below on the method to manage these files:

Let's say the file name is -p, and you are trying to delete it,  the usual error is, since the -p is being treated as the flag for command rm, rather than a file name:

$ rm -p
rm: invalid option -- 'p'
Try 'rm ./-p' to remove the file ‘-p’.
Try 'rm --help' for more information.

So, the correct way to manage this file is:

To list:

$ ls ./-p
$ ls -- -p
$ find . -maxdepth 1 -iname "-p"

To delete:
$ rm -- -p
$ rm ./-p
$ find . -maxdepth 1 -iname "-p" -delete

To create:
$ touch ./-p

Basically, the ./ can be used with any command, while the " -- " have been tested working with ls and rm.

Hope this is helpful, thanks to stackexchange for this useful tips.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

How to kill whole process group (parent + child process)

This is very easy, and all this while I have been using ps with grep and awk, just to get the parent and child process PID, and feed it to kill command to kill the whole lot of them. Now no more, that is why reading the man page is very beneficial ;). To kill the whole group process, please see below example.

Let's say I want to kill teamviewer, and it's child processes:

check what is teamviewer and its children's PID:

$ pstree -Gap 31458

teamviewerd,31458 -f










run kill to the PID of parent, and put - sign in front of the PID, to signal the whole group killing:
$ kill -TERM -31458

no more PID 31458, with the children processes
$ pstree -Gap 31458

Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Hot attach and hot detach network interface to kvm guest

To hot attach a network interface to a kvm guest, please follow below steps. The command we'll be using is virsh:

  1. Get to know the name of the guest, run below command on the kvm host: 
    foo@host:~$ sudo virsh list
     Id Name                 State
      1 kvm-guest running
  2. Check whether module acpiphp is loaded on the guest: 
    foo@guest:~$ sudo lsmod | grep -i acpiphp
  3. If yes, proceed to step 4. If no, run below command:
    foo@guest:~$ sudo modprobe acpiphp
  4. Hot attach the network interface:
    foo@host:~$ sudo virsh attach-interface kvm-guest network --model virtio --persistent
    Interface attached successfully
  5. Run dmesg on guest to verify that the interface has been attached successfully:
    foo@guest:~$ dmesg | tail 
    [38613567.591261] virtio-pci 0000:00:04.0: using default PCI settings
    [38613567.591283] pci 0000:00:05.0: no hotplug settings from platform
    [38613567.591285] pci 0000:00:05.0: using default PCI settings
    [38613567.591741] virtio-pci 0000:00:05.0: enabling device (0000 -> 0003)
    [38613567.593361] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKA] enabled at IRQ 10
    [38613567.601486] virtio-pci 0000:00:05.0: PCI INT A -> Link[LNKA] -> GSI 10 (level, high) -> IRQ 10
    [38613567.601524] virtio-pci 0000:00:05.0: setting latency timer to 64
    [38613567.602328] virtio-pci 0000:00:05.0: irq 43 for MSI/MSI-X
    [38613567.602343] virtio-pci 0000:00:05.0: irq 44 for MSI/MSI-X
    [38613567.602357] virtio-pci 0000:00:05.0: irq 45 for MSI/MSI-X
  6. Set ipaddress for the new interface:
    foo@guest:~$ sudo touch /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1; sudo echo -e "DEVICE=eth1\nONBOOT=yes\nTYPE=Ethernet\nBOOTPROTO=static\nIPADDR=\nNETMASK=" > /etc/sysconfig/ifcfg-eth1
  7. Bring up the interface:
    foo@guest:~$ sudo ifup eth1
  8. Check the interface:
    foo@guest:~$ ifconfig eth1
    eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 52:54:00:D7:10:04
              inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
              UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
              RX packets:178767965 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
              TX packets:58477452 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
              collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
              RX bytes:11949338417 (11.1 GiB)  TX bytes:498944480375 (464.6 GiB)

For hot detaching, the command in virsh is detach-interface, please follow below steps to detach the newly added interface in the above instruction:

  1. Bring down the interface in the guest:
    foo@guest:~$ sudo ifdown eth1
  2. Delete the interface config file:
    foo@guest:~$ sudo rm /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
  3. Detach the network interface in host:
    foo@host:~$ sudo detach-interface kvm-guest type network --mac 52:54:00:D7:10:04
  4. Verify that the network has been removed, by running the dumpxml command, pipe to less, and search for interface:
    foo@host:~$ sudo virsh dumpxml kvm-guest | less

Hope you all will gain benefit from this post.